Commentary on the Four Hundred Names

The Glorious Commentary on Sri Vishnu Sahasranamam – The Fourth Centum






301) yugAdikRut (युगादिकृत्)

Thence, the boundless wonder of Bhagavan is shown with the ensuing divine names. The divine form of Bhagavan as a baby lying on a banyan leaf is instantiated for expounding Bhagavan’s marvellous deeds.

At the end of Brahma’s day, a partial destruction of the first three worlds occurs, which is called ‘naimittika pralayam’ in the philosophical parlance. At the end of every such pralayam, since Bhagavan restores the beginning of a new cycle of yugas, He is called ‘yugAdikRut’ – the one who begins the cycle of yugas (or time). He is the one who isn’t affected by the destruction waters, and restores the cycle of time (helpful in creation and sustenance of entities) without fail.


Etymology: The eternal and Supreme Lord Bhagavan lies on a banyan leaf, and causes the recurrence of yugas in a new cycle at the end of destruction, due to which He is called ‘yugAdikRut’.





302) yugAvartaH (युगावर्तः)

Bhagavan causes the cycle of yugas to recur each time with all the dharmas of each yuga intact, and hence called ‘yugAvartaH’.


Etymology: With all the rights (dharmas) of each yuga intact (such as in kRuta, trEta, dvApara and kali), since Bhagavan causes the cycle of four yugas to recur, He is called ‘yugAvartaH’. He is verily the ‘Hari’, who is of the form of time.





303) naikamAyaH (नैकमायः)

Although bearing the form of an innocent baby, Bhagavan possesses a number of immensely marvelous deeds such as swallowing the entire world, sleeping on a small banyan leaf all alone in the deluging waters without any support, et al, which are incomprehensible and beyond logic. Since the count of such wondrous deeds is large, He is called ‘naikamAyaH’ – the one whose wondrous deeds are multitude.

The word ‘mAyA’ in this divine name doesn’t signify delusion as the advaitins put it. Rather, it is used in a number of other contexts to mean ‘truth’, such as in the following quotes:

Know the mAyA to be verily this prakRuti” (in here, the word ‘prakRuti’ has numerous interpretations).

The etymologists define the meaning of ‘mAyA’ as ‘knowledge’.

The scriptural statements such as “the learned gain knowledge from Bhagavan”, “…the one who knows the knowledge of all entities”, et al, the word ‘mAyA’ is understood to mean ‘knowledge’.

Similarly, the Vishnu Purana says thus: “With the fiercest effulgence and lightening speed, the Chakra destroyed the thousand ‘mAyAs’ of shambara one by one”. In this case, the word ‘mAyA’ is used in the context to mean ‘wondrous body’, and not ‘delusion’. This is clear from the fact that it was slain with a weapon, which is not possible in case of ‘delusion’.

In the Varaha purana, the wonders of Bhagavan are listed thus:

The rise of clouds and their return to the ocean, the waxing and waning of the moon, the flow of wind, the occurrence of lightening, the movement of the sun – all go on to show the wondrous acts of Vishnu”

All these scriptural statements clearly show the meaning of the word ‘mAyA’ as ‘extreme wonder’.

The Aranaya Parva of Mahabharata captures the utter amazement of sage Markandeya at the sight of Bhagavan lying on a small banyan leaf in the deluging waters, and quotes him thus: “Oh King! At that very sight of all the worlds in the small belly of Bhagavan (lying in the form of a baby on a banyan leaf), I was taken by great surprise…”

He is further quoted to have said thus: “Oh, the scion of Bharata clan! Having shown such wondrous sights, Bhagavan vanished all of a sudden. All those sights are greatly surprising to me even now”.

Thus, the scriptures abundantly quote the word ‘mAyA’ in the contexts to mean ‘extremely wondrous’.


Etymology: Taking the form of an innocent child, since Bhagavan possesses numerous wondrous deeds such as swallowing the worlds, sleeping on a small banyan leaf with no support, et al, He is called ‘naikamAyaH’.






304) mahASanaH (महाशनः)

Since Bhagavan swallows all worlds at the time of destruction, He is called ‘mahASanaH’ – the one with a great appetite.

The Aranya Parva of Mahabharata says thus: “I saw all the moveable and immoveable entities – which I have seen in this world till now – in the belly of that great Lord”.


Etymology: Since Bhagavan swallows all worlds, He is called ‘mahASanaH’.




305) adRushyaH (अदृश्यः)

Bhagavan is called ‘adRuSyaH’ since He possesses divine deeds that are hidden from the mundane logic. The root ‘dRuS’ (दृश्) gets the ‘kyap’ (क्यप्) adjunct as per grammatical rules, resulting in the word ‘dRuSyaH’ (that which is seen). This divine name negates the captivity of such divine deeds of Bhagavan from the mundane logic.

As the scriptures put it, “How is it ever possible that a small baby sleeps blissfully while the entire world has been destroyed? How is it that I am unable to comprehend the greatness of that child even with fierce penance?”


Etymology: With His wondrous deeds even during the great deluge that are beyond all logical boundaries, since Bhagavan is hidden from the comprehension (of even great seers such as Markandeya Maharshi, who constantly meditate upon Him), He is called ‘adRushyaH’.





306) vyaktarUpaH (व्यक्तरूपः)

Although beyond comprehension as expounded thus, since Bhagavan shows Himself in glorious divine forms, He is called ‘vyaktarUpaH’ – the one who is manifest.

As the Aranya Parva of Mahabharata puts it, “Bhagavan always shines forth in my mind like the linseed flower, with a divine mark in His chest called ‘Srivatsa’ which is verily the abode of Sri Mahalakshmi”.

Oh king! The divine lotus feet of that Bhagavan – which are coppery in color, and which are gentle in nature, beautiful to behold and decorated with reddish toes – were borne on my head and saluted”.


Etymology: Since Bhagavan manifests in glorious and divine forms, and since He showed Himself thus manifestly to the learned Markandeya Maharshi – who was moving about in the deluging waters (when he sought to behold the glorious form of Bhagavan), He is called ‘vyaktarUpaH’.





307) sahasrajit (सहस्रजित्)

Bhagavan wins over everything even while lying for the entire duration of creation spanning over thousand cycles of chaturyugas. Thus, He is called ‘sahasrajit’.

The Aranya parva of Mahabharata quotes Bhagavan thus: “Oh Brahmarshi! I shall lie down for the entire duration of thousand chaturyugas…”


Etymology: Since Bhagavan wins over everything in the thousand cycles of chaturyugas even while lying down, He is called ‘sahasrajit’.





308) anantajit (अनन्तजित्)

Although bearing the form of a small child (with limited attributes), since Bhagavan’s greatness cannot be measured by anyone anytime in anyway. Thus, He is called ‘anantajit’.

Markandeya Maharshi claims thus in the Aranya Parva of Mahabharta: “Oh king! Even after wandering in His belly for more than a hundred years, I could not reach the end. Not just that, I could not even see how His end looked even from a distance!”


Etymology: Bhagavan’s greatness has no bounds and cannot be traced by anyone anytime in anyway, although He sports the form of a small child with limited attributes. Thus, He is called ‘anantajit’.











309 and 310) iShTaH (इष्टः), aviSiShTaH (अविशिष्टः)

Since Bhagavan is most desired by each and every entity alike in His belly – irrespective of birth – just like an infant craving for its mother, He is called ‘iShTaH’ (the one who is desired) and ‘aviSiShTaH’ (the one who is equal).


Etymology: The one who is engrossed in protecting all entities alike is called ‘iShTaH’ and ‘aviSiShTaH’. (Just as all entities desire Him alike, so also Bhagavan protects every entity without any bias)




311) shiShTEShTaH (शिष्टॆष्टः)

Since Bhagavan is thus most desired by the scholarly men like Markandeya and others as the ultimate goal of attainment, He is called ‘shiShTEShTaH’ – the one who is liked by learned men.

In the same Aranya Parva of Mahabharata, Bhagavan is quoted to have said thus:

All those learned men who are eternally stationed in sattva guna and have given up the body-mindedness continuously contemplate upon me, and worship me in all ways”.


Etymology: Since Bhagavan is desired as the supreme goal of attainment by foremost of all learned men and Brahmins such as Markandeya et al, He is called ‘shiShTEShTah’.





312) shikhaNDI (शिखण्डी)

As shown in the scriptures that say “I see that lion among men seated, who is radiating immense effulgence”, Bhagavan possesses His immense, inviolable, and ruling effulgence itself as an ornament on His head. Hence, He is called ‘shikhaNDI’ – the one who possesses His greatness itself as His ornament.


Etymology: The one who possesses immense, inviolable and supreme effulgence itself as an ornament on His head is called ‘shikhaNDI’.





313) nahuSHaH (नहुषः)

Bhagavan binds the individual souls with His ‘mAyA’ (a strange power). Thus He is called ‘nahuShaH’ – the one who binds. The word ‘nahyati’ (नह्यति) means to bind. Thus, the etymologists indicate the meaning of this name as ‘the one who binds’.

As the Shvetashvatara Upanishat puts it, “All of these are bound in His mAyA”.


Etymology: Since Bhagavan always binds the individual souls with His power of ‘mAyA’, He is called ‘nahuShaH’.




314) vRuShaH (वृषः)

The same Bhagavan – who binds the individual souls in this material creation with His strange power called ‘mAyA’ – also revives such souls stuck in the interiors of this ocean (called saMsAra) with His nectarine words and charming beauty, and revitalizes them with His nectarine showers of love. Thus, He is called ‘vRuShaH’ – the one who sprinkles/showers.

This divine name comes from the root ‘vRuSh’ (वृष्), meaning ‘to shower’.

Markandeya Maharshi says thus in the Aranya Parva of Mahabharata: “Thence that boy with lotus-like eyes, a chest adorned with a mark called ‘Srivatsa’, and a divine body full of effulgence spoke pleasing words to me thus: ‘Oh Markandeya, I have known you. You are exhausted, and you need some rest’”


Etymology: Residing like nectar amidst the individual souls fallen into the ocean of saMsAra, the one who revives such fallen souls with His charming beauty and sweet words and thus showers His love generously on such souls is called ‘vRuShaH’.






315) krOdhahA (क्रॊधहा)

Thence, the incarnation of Bhagavan as Bhargava-Rama or ‘Parashurama’ is hailed. Having uprooted twenty one generations of unruly kShatriyas, since Bhagavan as Parashurama subdued His anger at the behest of Kashyapa, He is called ‘krOdhahA’ – the one who subdued His anger.


Etymology: The one who subdued His anger that splay ill upon the kShatriyas, at the behest of Kashyapa, is called ‘krOdhahA’. He is indeed the one who also dispels anger for His devotees.





316) krOdhakRut (क्रॊधकृत्)

The one who was roused with anger at the unruly kShatriyas earlier is called ‘krOdhakRut’.


Etymology: ‘krOdhakRut’ is the one who was earlier roused with anger against the kShatriyas (for a full 21-generation period).




317) kartA (कर्ता) (also repeated in 382)

The one who killed kArtaveerya who actually triggered such fierce anger in Him is called ‘kartA’. The Vishnu Dharma says, “Parashurama is the one who dispelled kShatriyas from the phase of this earth”.


Etymology: The slayer of kArtaveerya, who was the main reason for triggering fierce rage is called ‘kartA’.




318) viSvabAhuH (विश्वबाहुः)

Since Bhagavan’s hands are thus beneficial to the entire world by removing thorns is called ‘viSvabAhuH’.


Etymology: The one whose hands are beneficial to the entire world is called ‘viSvabAhuH’.




319) mahIdharaH (महीधरः)

The one who bears the entire world by eliminating the weight in the form of evil people is called ‘mahIdharaH’.


Etymology: The one who reduces the load (by eliminating evil people) of this earth and bears it is called ‘mahIdharaH’.









320) achyutaH (अच्युतः) (also repeated in 101, 557)

Bhagavan is hailed by Brahma, Indra, Varuna, and other devas thus: “Oh lord, you are the one who never falter from your position (of protector). Thus, you are hailed by everyone as ‘achyutaH’”.

Since Bhagavan doesn’t give up His greatness even during His incarnations (births in various species) unlike the other demigods such as Brahma, Rudra, et al, He is called ‘achyutaH’.


Etymology: Since Bhagavan doesn’t lose His greatness even in His incarnations amidst the demigods such as Brahma, Rudra et al who are bound to lose their positions some day, He is called ‘achyutaH’.





321) prathitaH (प्रथितः)

Since Bhagavan is popularly known to hold His greatness at all times, He is called ‘prathitaH’ – the popular one.

This is as said in the scriptures thus:

“…His name is widely known”

He is the only one who is bound to succeed in everything”, et al.


Etymology: The one who is popular in this world due to His being ‘achyuta’ (as explained in the previous divine name) is called ‘prathitaH’.




322) prANaH (प्राणः) (also repeated in 67 and 408)

The one who is verily the life force for all souls in this world is called ‘prANaH’. (In the 67th divine name, Bhagavan’s nature of being dear to the nityasUris as much as their very life force was expounded. In this divine name, Bhagavan being the life force for all individual souls in this world during His incarnations is said)

The scriptures hail thus:

I am verily the life force, and the knower. Know me to be the life of all, and verily the nectar, and worship me”

Bhagavan is the nectar for all devas, and He is verily the life of all souls”

Bhagavan is called ‘prANaH’, since He is the life force in every entity”, et al.


Etymology: Since Bhagavan is like the life force in every individual soul, He is called ‘prANaH’.




323) prANadaH (प्राणदः) (also repeated in 66, 409 and 956)

Thereafter the ensuing divine names hail the kUrmaavataara (incarnation as the great tortoise) of Bhagavan.

Since Bhagavan bestowed the devas with all energy necessary to churn the magnificent milky ocean, He is called ‘prANadaH’ – the bestower of power.

In the mantra varnas, Bhaavan is hailed as “the one with immense power”.


Etymology: The one who bestowed the devas with all necessary energy to churn the mighty milky ocean during His incarnation as the great tortoise is called ‘prANadaH’.





324) vAsavAnujAH (वासवानुजः)

Since Bhagavan was born as the younger brother of Indra – who desired for the lost wealth and nectar by churning the milky ocean, He is called ‘vAsavAnujaH’.

The root ‘jan’ जन्(to be born) is prefixed with the word ‘anu’ अनु(following), due to which it gets the ‘DaH’ (डः) suffix, resulting in the word ‘anujaH’. Since Bhagavan incarnated as the brother of Indra, He is called ‘vAsavAnujaH’.


Etymology: Since Bhagavan was born as the younger brother of Indra, He is called ‘vAsavAnujaH’.




325) apAMnidhiH (अपांनिधिः)

The one who supported the mighty ocean during its churning is called ‘apAMnidhiH’.


Etymology: Bhagavan is called ‘apAMnidhiH’ due to His supporting of the mighty ocean that was being churned.




326) adhiShThAnam (अधिष्ठानम्)

At the same time as He supported the mighty ocean, He also supported the Mandara Mountain that was used as the churning rod by holding it firmly from above. Thus, He is called ‘adhiShThAnam’ – the supporting base.


Etymology: The one who firmly held the moving mandara mountain in the churning waters is called ‘adhiShThAnam’. He is indeed the one who supports every entity.





327) apramattaH (अप्रमत्तः)

Since Bhagavan is ever cautious in protecting His devotees thus, He is called ‘apramattaH’ – the one who never falters.


Etymology: The one who is extremely mindful in protecting His devotees is called ‘apramattaH’.




328) pratiShThitaH (प्रतिष्ठितः)

Since Bhagavan does not need another support for Himself and stands firm in His own greatness, He is called ‘pratiShThitaH’.

The Chandogya Upanishat raises a question and also provides an answer thus: “Where does that Bhagavan rest? He rests in His own greatness”

Even the Vishnu Dharma says thus: “…that Supreme Lord, who is ever established in His own greatness…”


Etymology: The one who is established in His own greatness (without an expectation of any external support) is called ‘pratiShThitaH’.


स्वॆ महिम्नि स्थितॊ यस्तु स प्रतिष्ठित उच्यतॆ |







329) skandaH (स्कन्दः)

Since Bhagavan withers the asuras during His incarnation as mahA kUrma, He is called ‘skandaH’ – the one who destroys.


Etymology: The one who slays or destroys or withers the asuras is called ‘skandaH’.




330) skandadharaH (स्कन्दधरः)

Since Bhagavan supports even the commander-in-chief of devas – Subrahmanya (skanda), He is called ‘skandadharaH’. After all, even Subrahmanya is also included in Bhagavan’s wealth of entities (vibhUti).

As Bhagavan Himself declares in the Bhagavad Geeta, He is ‘skanda’ among commanders.


Etymology: The one who supports even the six headed Subrahmanya is called ‘skandadharaH’.




331) dhuryaH (धुर्यः)

As the mantras hail Bhagavan as “the one who bears the entire creation”, He is called ‘dhuryaH’ – the one who bears the worlds. The root ‘dhura’ (धुर) gets the ‘yat’ (यत्) adjunct, resulting in this divine name. In this context, ‘dhura’ is understood to mean ‘load’.


Etymology: Since Bhagavan is the one who has borne the worlds, He is called ‘dhuryaH’.




332) varadaH (वरदः)

Bhagavan bestows boons even upon devas – who are different and lower to Himself, and who bear different works in this creation. Thus, He is called ‘varadaH’ – the bestower of boons.


Etymology: The one who bestows the desired fruits is called ‘varadaH’.




333) vAyuvAhanaH (वायुवाहनः) (also repeated in 860)

Bhagavan propels the air, which is like a life force in this creation. Hence, He is called ‘vAyuvAhanaH’.


Etymology: The one who causes the movement of air which is like the life force in this creation is called ‘vAyuvAhanaH’.




334) vAsudEvaH (वासुदॆवः) (also repeated in 700 and 714)

Thence, the ensuing twelve names construe the natural divine qualities of Bhagavan. He is called ‘vAsudEvaH’ in this context.

Bhagavan is both ‘vAsuH’ (वासुः) and ‘dEvaH’ (दॆवः). He is called ‘vAsuH’ since He resides in every iota of this creation. Just as the sunrays pervade the entire world, and just as a bird protects its offspring under its own wings, so also Bhagavan embraces and pervades the entire creation, resides in every iota of this creation and constantly protects every entity in this creation. Hence, He is called ‘vAsuH’. Further, He is full of playfulness, victory, splendor, praiseworthiness and action. Hence, He is called ‘dEvaH’. Thus, He is called ‘vAsudEvaH’.

Bhagavan Himself claims thus:

I cover up this entire world just like the sun covering up the entire world with his rays. I am thus the indweller of every entity in this creation. Hence, I am known popularly as ‘vAsudEvaH’”.

The Vishnu Purana hails thus: “Since Bhagavan indwells every entity in this creation, and since all the entities reside in Him, He is called ‘vAsudEvaH’”.

Further elucidation of this divine name is restrained since this is considered to be one of the most secret divine names among the mantras. So the readers are implored to approach their Acharyas for a complete elucidation.


Etymology: The one who indwells in every creature is called ‘vAsudEvaH’. The root ‘divu’ (दिवु) is used to mean ‘playfulness’, ‘victory’, ‘splendor’, etc. Residing in every entity and also keeping all entities within Him, the one who plays blissfully is called ‘vAsudEvaH’.







335) bRuhadbhAnuH (बृहद्भानुः)

The same trait of Bhagavan is further elucidated. Bhagavan glows magnificently in His glorious forms in Sri Vaikuntham. His effulgence is both magnificent and eternal. Hence, He is called ‘bRuhadbhAnuH’.


Etymology: The one whose effulgence is magnificent is called ‘bRuhadbhAnuH’.




336) AdidEvaH (आदिदॆवः) (also repeated in 491)

At the same time, Bhagavan is also the one who playfully creates, sustains and destroys the lower material creation comprising all these worlds. Since He is the primordial creator of all such material creation, He is called ‘AdidEvaH’ – the primordial creator.

The scriptures hail thus:

Assembling and separating all entities in this creation, Bhagavan plays with His own free will”

Bhagavan Vishnu is incomprehensible, and absolutely independent. He moves about in all places according to His own free will. He creates, sustains and destroys all of these material worlds and enjoys playfully just like a small child playing with its toys”.


Etymology: Since Bhagavan plays with this material world – which is just as much as a quarter of Sri Vaikuntham, He is called ‘AdidEvaH’.

(In other words, since Bhagavan possesses creation, sustenance and destruction of this material world itself as a sport, He is called ‘AdidEvaH’).




337) purandaraH (पुरन्दरः)

With the ensuing four names, Bhagavan’s quality of eliminating the evil souls who stand as an obstruction to the progress of other entities by causing afflictions is hailed.

Bhagavan tears apart the cities of asuras, and hence He is called ‘purandaraH’.

With this divine quality, Bhagavan shows His capacity to ward off fears from the minds of His devotees caused due to asuras, pishAchas, lightening, planets, etc.


Etymology: Bhagavan is called ‘purandaraH’ since He tears apart the cities of asuras.









338) ashOkaH (अशॊकः) (also repeated in 637)

Bhagavan eliminates the spiritual obstacles (caused due to the one’s own limitations) in the path of attaining Bhagavan such as sorrow, delusion, hunger, et al. Hence He is called ‘ashOkaH’ – the one who represses sorrows caused due to one’s own limitations.


Etymology: He is called as ‘ashOkaH’, who is the destroyer of sorrows, delusions, et al.





339) tAraNaH (तारणः)

Bhagavan also eliminates natural obstacles (caused due to the limiting nature in this prakRuti) such as enemies, thieves, ailments, and all other types of fears. Hence, He is called ‘tAraNaH’ – the one who represses natural obstacles.


Etymology: He is called ‘tAraNaH’, who saves us from the fears of enemies, ailments, et al.




340) tAraH (तारः) (also repeated in 968)

With His mere presence, since Bhagavan eliminates fear of saMsAra from the minds of His devotees, He is called ‘tAraH’ – the eliminator of fears.

In the Atharva shiras, it is said thus: “Bhagavan enables us to overcome the greatest fears of birth, ailments and death in this mighty ocean called saMsAra, and hence called ‘tAraH’”.

Other Vedic hymns such as the one from Chandogya Upanishat that says “Bhagavan is free from sins (and all kinds of karma), aging, death…..” support this statement.


Etymology: He is called ‘tAraH’, who lifts us out of the fear of saMsAra once and forever.




341) shUraH (शूरः) (also repeated in 650)

Bhagavan’s desire to win over all entities is shown in this divine name ‘shUraH’. It means ‘the one who is capable of winning’.

The root ‘shu’ (शु) represents going and winning over His opponents. It gets the ‘kran’ (क्रन्) adjunct by grammatical rules along with the deergha, resulting in this divine name.


Etymology: Since Bhagavan is ever desirous and capable of triumphing over all the opponents (explained in the previous divine names), He is called ‘shUraH’.




342) shouriH (शौरिः) (also repeated in 649)

Bhagavan’s special quality of Him voluntarily going to His devotees and protecting them (as against His devotees seeking His refuge for their protection) is shown in this divine name ‘shouriH’. Bhagavan gets this divine name since He is the son of vasudEva.


Etymology: The one who is born as the son of vasudEva (who is also called ‘shUraH’) is called ‘shouriH’.




343) janESvaraH (जनॆश्वरः)

Bhagavan is a vast ocean of radiant wealth capable of uplifting all the fallen souls from the swirls of saMsAra. Hence He is called ‘janESvaraH’ – the Lord of all the souls born in this saMsAra.


Etymology: Since Bhagavan exercises His lordship over all the fallen souls born in this saMsAra by uplifting and enlightening them, He is called ‘janESvaraH’.




344) anukUlaH (अनुकूलः)

Due to His natural greatness, Bhagavan voluntarily remains subjugated to limits by repressing His wonders, pride, respect, et al regarding His supremacy. Hence He is called ‘anukUlaH’ – the one who abides by the limits.

The word ‘kUlaH’ (कूलः) means shore. The one who abides by the limiting shores (just as a vast ocean does not generally cross the shores although potent) is called ‘anukUlaH’.

This divine quality of Bhagavan is hailed in the Srimad Ramayanam thus:

Although Rama is called ‘veeryavAn’ – the valorous one, He is not carried away by His own valor”

Alternately, Bhagavan is the one who abides by His devotees’ whims.

This is as said in the scriptures thus:

The only refuge of all devotees – capable of holding their hands in times of distress – is Janardana, who is bought over by them in exchange for utter devotion”

When Yashoda ties Krishna to a grinding stone, she scolds Him thus:

Oh Krishna, you are a very mischievous boy! Free yourself from this knot if you can, and go where you want”, et al.


Etymology: Although great and potent by nature, since Bhagavan gives up all His pride, bewilderment, et al., and always abides by His devotees whims, He is called ‘anukUlaH’.





345) shatAvartaH (शतावर्तः)

Bhagavan is also called ‘shatAvartaH’. He possesses hundreds of swirls. The ‘swirls’ (आवर्ताः) in this divine name represent His expansive wealth.

Although beyond limits, Bhagavan voluntarily abides Himself by a certain limit (His devotees’ whims). This is like a wide river flowing through a narrow gorge, thus causing a lot of swirls in the flowing water. Thus, a parallel can be drawn between the swirls in the flowing water (caused by a narrow gorge) and the swirls in Bhagavan (caused by His devotees’ limits).


Etymology: Bhagavan possesses hundreds of swirls due to the flow of His unbounded wealth being constrained by the limits of His devotees (as per their capacities), and hence called ‘shatAvartaH’. He is the ocean of wealth, and the provider of both material benefits as well as liberation.






346) padmI (पद्मी)

Having thus explained the divine qualities of Vasudeva, thence His divine forms are being hailed.

Since Bhagavan – as Vasudeva – always sports a lotus in His hand (called ‘leelApadma’ लीलापद्म), He is called ‘padmI’.


Etymology: The divine qualities of Bhagavan in His manifestation as Vasudeva were hailed till now, and thence His divine forms are hailed. Since Bhagavan sports a lotus in His hand at all times, He is called ‘padmI’.





347) padmanibhEkShaNaH (पद्मनिभॆक्षणः)

Bhagavan’s eyes are like faultless lotuses in appearance. They are extremely attractive, and capable of quenching one’s weariness at the same time. Thus, He is called ‘padmanibhEkShaNaH’.


Etymology: The one who possesses attractive eyes resembling the freshly blossomed lotus in clear waters – which are also capable of quenching the weariness of His devotees – in order to protect them at all times is called ‘padmanibhEkShaNaH’.










348) padmanAbhaH (पद्मनाभः) (also repeated in 48 and 198)

Bhagavan’s navel also resembles a beautiful lotus. Hence He is called ‘padmanAbhaH’.


Etymology: The one whose navel is also like a lotus is called ‘padmanAbhaH’.




349) aravindAkShaH (अरविन्दाक्षः)

Bhagavan’s eyes are as beautiful as red lotuses. Hence He is called ‘aravindAkShaH’.


Etymology: The one who possesses beautiful eyes like the red lotuses is called ‘aravindAkShaH’.




350) padmagarbhaH (पद्मगर्भः)

Bhagavan situates Himself in a beautiful lotus – as tender and fragrant as Himself. Alternately, He situates Himself in the lotus of heart of His devotees who sincerely worship Him. Thus, He is called ‘padmagarbhaH’ – the one who is situated in a lotus.

The root ‘gRu’ गृ(to establish) gets the ‘bhan’ (भन्) adjunct, resulting in the word ‘garbhaH’.

This is as said in the scriptures thus:

The subtle, faultless lotus that houses the Lord Himself in it, and which is situated in the center of the body….”

Bhagavan resides in that subtle lotus of the heart of His devotees”

Bhagavan is seated on a beautiful lotus”, et al.


Etymology: The one who resides in the lotus of heart of His devotees (yogis) is called ‘padmagarbhaH’.




351) sharIrabhRut (शरीरभृत्)

Sporting such auspicious forms thus, since Bhagavan nourishes His devotees who are verily His divine body, He is called ‘sharIrabhRut’. He nourishes every individual soul with His adorable qualities.

The Vishnu Purana says thus: “When Bhagavan resides in the heart of a devotee, that devotee shines forth with a very pleasant demeanor in this world”

The Chandogya Upanishat also says thus: “Oh Shwetaketu, your face is glowing as though suggesting that you have completely understood the Supreme Brahman”.

The devotees of Bhagavan who sincerely worship Him as laid down by Bhagavan Himself in various scriptures are indeed the body of Bhagavan. At the same time, Bhagavan considers such pure devotees themselves as verily His soul. Such an intimate relationship exists between Bhagavan and His true devotees, with which Bhagavan nourishes them.


Etymology: Situated in the middle of the lotus of heart of His true devotee (yogi), since Bhagavan bears such an individual soul like His own body and nourishes it, He is called ‘sharIrabhRut’.





352 and 353) maharddhiH (महर्द्धिः), RuddhaH (ऋद्धः) (also repeated in 279)

Thence, Bhagavan’s divine wealth in His manifestation as Vasudeva is hailed.

Bhagavan’s divine wealth is expansive enough to look after the ‘yOga’ (attainment of wealth) and ‘kshEma’ (retentiveness of such gained wealth) of all of His devotees. Thus, He is called ‘maharddhiH’ – the one who bestows great prosperity upon His devotees.

Furthermore, Bhagavan Himself experiences completeness from the progress of such true devotees. Hence, He is also greatly prosperous Himself, and aptly called ‘RuddhaH’ – the greatly prosperous one.

This is as shown in the Srimad Ramayana, where it says Rama was extremely happy after coronating Vibheeshana as the ruler of Lanka.


Etymology: The divine wealth of that Vasudeva is hailed thereafter. Bhagavan looks after the possessions of His devotees with His unbound supreme wealth, due to which He is called ‘maharddhiH’. Also, He is feels greatly prosperous Himself with the progress of such true devotees, and hence called ‘RuddhaH’.






354) vRuddhAtmA (वृद्धात्मा)

Bhagavan’s nature is so magnanimous that all such greatness as shown in the previous divine names is reduced to merely a handful measure when compared to His divine natural self. Hence, He is called ‘vRuddhAtmA’ – the magnanimous one by nature.


Etymology: Since Bhagavan’s divine nature is so great as to reduce all other greatness to merely a handful measure, He is called ‘vRuddhAtmA’.





355) mahAkShaH (महाक्षः)

The word ‘mahAn’ refers to being venerable. The word ‘akShaH’ refers to the pivot or axle of a vehicle. Since the venerable Garuda himself is used as Bhagavan’s vehicle, Bhagavan is called ‘mahAkShaH’ – the one who possesses a venerable chariot.

In this context, the word ‘akShaH’ is used to represent the vehicle / chariot (ratha) of Bhagavan. A parallel can be drawn between the vehicle and Garuda – who is verily the form of Vedas – due to their common functionality of transporting.


Etymology: Garuda is called ‘akShaH’ to mean ‘chariot’, since he acts similar to a chariot by carrying Bhagavan around. Since such a chariot of Bhagavan – Garuda – is most venerable, Bhagavan is called ‘mahAkShaH’.





356) garuDadhvajaH (गरुडध्वजः)

Bhagavan possesses the same Garuda as His identifying flag as well. Hence He is called ‘garuDadhvajaH’. The ‘Garuda flag’ itself is one of the most uniquely identifying characteristics of Bhagavan showing His absolute supremacy.


Etymology: The one who possesses the same Garuda as His flag as well is called ‘garuDadhvajaH’.









357) atulaH (अतुलः)

The one who is thus incomparable is called ‘atulaH’. They Vedas say thus: “There is no other entity like Him”

Etymology: Due to His possession of Garuda as His flag, Bhagavan is incomparable and hence called ‘atulaH’.




358) sharabhaH (शरभः)

Bhagavan punishes those entities that act beyond their limits, and hence called ‘sharabhaH’ – the punisher. This divine name comes from ‘shRuNAti’ (शृणाति), referring to punishment. The root ‘shRu’ (शृ) means to destroy. It gets the ‘abhach’ (अभच्) adjunct by grammatical rules, resulting in this divine name.


Etymology: Since Bhagavan punishes those individuals who disobey His divine orders (in the form of shAstras), He is called ‘sharabhaH’.




359) bhImaH (भीमः) (also repeated in 948)

Bhagavan is also called ‘bhImaH’ since He induces fear among those who disobey His divine orders. The root ‘bhI’ भी(fearing) gets the ‘mak’ (मक्) adjunct, resulting in this divine name. In this context, it means the one who instills such fear.

With such fear of Bhagavan alone do the devas such as vAyu, indra, et al remain in their limits of action, bound by Bhagavan’s orders. This is clearly shown by Vedas when they declare “out of His fear does the wind flow”, et al.

They also declare thus:

All sentient entities in this creation fear Bhagavan greatly, as much as they see a rasied vajraayudha (the weapon called ‘vajra’) – ready to attack”

With fear of Bhagavan only the fire burns. With His fear alone the sun produces heat. With His fear, Indra, vAyu, yama – the lord of death – and others run around to be identified as obedient servants”, et al.


Etymology: Bhagavan is called ‘bhImaH’ since He instills fear of punishment in the lower demigods such as vAyu, indra, et al if they dare to disobey His orders.



360) samayaj~jaH (समयज्ञः)

Thus, the one who clearly knows the behavior of His servants such as agni, vAyu, et al (to know how they behave at various times) is called ‘samayaj~jaH’ – the one who knows the time. The Vedas declare thus: “Bhagavan created these sun, moon, et al just as they were in the previous creation cycle”.

Alternately, He knows exactly when the time is ripe for Him to give Himself to His dearest devotees. He knows exactly when He can protect them, and provides His shelter of protection (abhayam) accordingly.


Etymology: The one who knows the behaviors of His servants such as agni and others at various times is called ‘samayaj~jaH’.





361) havirhariH (हविर्हरिः)

Just as declared in the Vedas as “Only till such time I am not released from the bondages of saMsAra, I cycle in this saMsAra. The day I earn Bhagavan’s grace and get released from this cycle, I attain verily that supreme Brahman and prosper”, Bhagavan knows and waits for the right time to grace each one of His dear devotees, and finally unites with such devotees in Sri Vaikuntham and also gives Himself to them for mutual enjoyment. Thus, He is called ‘haviH’. The root ‘hu’ (हु) means to exchange – give and take. It gets the ‘isiH’ (इसिः) adjunct per grammatical rules, resulting in the word ‘haviH’.

Furthermore, Bhagavan only dispels all obstacles in the way of attaining Him, and hence He is called ‘hariH’ – the one who steals (removes) the obstacles.

Since Bhagavan thus gives Himself to His devotees, unites with such dear devotees, and also dispels obstacles in the way of such union, He is called ‘havirhariH’.

This is as said in the scriptures thus:

Hari steals (clears off) all sins of His dear devotees, even if they were known to be the most evil minded souls before, although they did not yearn for such divine grace. This is like fire displaying its nature of burning although touched without knowledge”.

havirhariH’ is thus a single name, and not two names.

Bhagavan Himself declares thus: “I accept a part of the fire oblations, and hence called ‘hariH’. Also, I am called ‘hariH’ due to my greenish hue”.

Since Bhagavan thus accepts the oblations (havis) in the sacred fire, He is called ‘havirhariH’.


Etymology: Bhagavan is called ‘haviH’ since He knows when the time is ripe and gives away Himself to His dear devotees and also unites with them. He is called ‘hariH’ since He only removes the obstacles in the way of such divine union. Thus, He is called ‘havirhariH’.

Alternately, since Bhagavan accepts the oblations given in the sacred fire (directly as well as in the form as indweller of lower demigods to whom such oblations may be directed), He is called ‘havirhariH’.







362) sarvalakShaNa-lakShaNyaH (सर्वलक्षणलक्षण्यः)

Thence, Bhagavan vAsudEva’s form as the consort of Sri Mahalakshmi is hailed. Bhagavan possesses an auspicious divine body showing insignia of great prosperity due to His constant embracing of His consort Sri Mahalakshmi. Hence He is called ‘sarva-lakShaNa-lakShaNyaH’ – the one who possesses all auspicious insignia.

Such divine auspicious insignia are shown in the scriptures thus:

One should meditate upon that consort of Sri Mahalakshmi, who possesses the hue of a lotus, and is stationed in a divine lotus sporting the divine discus (charkra) in both of His hands”

Oh lotus eyed one, the ocean of all auspiciousness and bliss…” et al.


Etymology: sarva-lakShaNa-lakShaNyaH is the one who sports the insignia of His divine union with Sri Mahalakshmi.




363) lakShmIvAn (लक्ष्मीवान्)

Thus He is also called ‘lakShmIvAn’ – the one who is eternally united with Sri Mahalakshmi.

Bhagavan Himself declares thus:

When I held the hand of Sri Mahalakshmi in marriage (to enact our marriage for all individual souls to enjoy), I playfully disclosed Her eternity just like myself (without another cause). I have taken shelter in Her ever since, and she has sought my refuge. So we are mutually inseparable for eternity”.

The word ‘prakRuti’ in this sloka verily refers to Sri Mahalakshmi, who is the mother of all worlds.


Etymology: Since Bhagavan is ever united with Sri Mahalakshmi, He is called ‘lakShmIvAn’.




364) samiti~jjayaH (समितिञ्जयः)

Ever united with Sri Mahalakshmi who is the mother of all worlds, Bhagavan becomes the father of every entity. Since the duo thus takes on the responsibility of their children (individual souls born in this creation) in bestowing all happiness upon them, and dispelling the confusions from their minds regarding their eternal natural subservience unto them, Bhagavan is called ‘samiti~jjayaH’ (read as samitinjayaH).

As the mantra varnas hail, Bhagavan is the one who wins over all sorrows of His devotees (in terms of confusions regarding their subservience, and all other types of obstacles that stop them from attaining Him).


Etymology: Having united with Sri Mahalakshmi, since Bhagavan dispels the confusions from the minds of His dear devotees regarding their eternal and natural subservience unto the duo, and thus since He dispels the root of all their sorrows and bestows all auspiciousness, He is called ‘samitinjayaH’.










365) vikSharaH (विक्षरः)

As described hitherto, since Bhagavan never lets His love towards His dearest devotees diminish, He is called ‘vikSharaH’.


Etymology: Since Bhagavan’s divine love towards His devotees said hitherto never diminishes, He is called ‘vikSharaH’.




366) rOhitaH (रॊहितः)

Bhagavan possesses a reddish hue as in the calyx of a beautiful lotus flower, due to His eternal union with Sri Mahalakshmi. Hence, He is called ‘rOhitaH’ – the one with a beautiful reddish hue.


Etymology: Since Bhagavan possesses a reddish hue as in the calyx of a lotus flower, He is called ‘rOhitaH’.




367) mArgaH (मार्गः) (also repeated in 398)

Since He is sought by all of His dear devotees, He is called ‘mArgaH’ – the one who is sought after.

As said in the mantra varnas, Bhagavan is the one who is most liked by the devotees.


Etymology: The one who is constantly sought after by His devotees for fulfilling all their desires is called ‘mArgaH’.




368) hEtuH (हॆतुः)

Bhagavan is also called ‘hEtuH’ since He remains as the cause for the fulfillment of such desires of all of His dear devotees.

The root ‘hi’ (हि) refers to movement, which gets the ‘tuH’ (तुः) adjunct, resulting in the divine name.


Etymology: Since Bhagavan bestows the desired fruits upon all devotees and thus remains the cause for all their attainments, He is called ‘hEtuH’.



369) dAmOdaraH (दामॊदरः)

Since all the worlds (dAmAni) reside in the belly of Bhagavan, He is called ‘dAmOdaraH’. This divine name represents His disposition as primordial creator with Sri Mahalakshmi. The scriptures say thus: “The worlds by name ‘dAma’ shine forth in His belly, due to which He gets the name ‘dAmOdaraH’”.

Alternately, He is called dAmOdaraH since He bestows happiness upon all the dEvas. The word ‘dAma’ in this context refers to bliss.

Also, He is called ‘dAmOdaraH’ since He was tied with a rope in His belly by His mother Yashoda to a grinding stone. The word ‘dAma’ in this context means a rope.

Thus, although highly clever as loved by even Sri Mahalakshmi Herself, Bhagavan voluntarily gets bound by His dear devotees (like Yashoda, and other gopikas) in their faultless devotion. He stands tied to a grinding stone with tears rolling down His cheeks, and thus displays His incomparable simplicity, although being the only Supreme Entity. This divine name shows this extraordinary simplicity and affection of Bhagavan.


Etymology: The one who houses all worlds (dAma) in His belly is called ‘dAmOdaraH’. Alternately, He is also popularly called dAmOdaraH since He was easily tied by Yashoda with a rope in His belly. Also, He is called ‘dAmOdaraH’ since He bestows all happiness upon the dEvas with His infinite bliss.






370) sahaH (सहः)

Although being the consort of verily Sri Mahalakshmi Herself (indicating His absolute Supremacy), since He happily puts up with all the tying, scolding, threatening et al by Yashoda, He is called ‘sahaH’ – the one who endures.


Etymology: Since Bhagavan endures the acts of tying, scolding et al by Yashoda, He is called ‘sahaH’.




371) mahIdharaH (महीधरः) (also repeated in 319)

Since Bhagavan only reduces the load on this earth by destroying all evil entities, He is called ‘mahIdharaH’.


Etymology: Since Bhagavan bears the world by reducing the load (by destroying all evil entities), He is called ‘mahIdharaH’.




372) mahAbhAgaH (महाभागः)

Since Bhagavan showed the fortune of winning over the Gopikas, Neela devi, the sixteen thousand maidens, rukmiNI, satyabhAmA, jAmbavatI, et al, with all of them voluntarily willing to marry Him, He is called ‘mahAbhAgaH’.


Etymology: mahAbhAgaH is the one who possesses lofty attributes that are desired by many great women such as rukmiNI, satyabhAmA, and others, and was married by them.




373) vEgavAn (वॆगवान्)

Although born as a human, since Bhagavan shows His invincible supreme lordship even in His incarnations, He is called ‘vEgavAn’. The ‘matup’ (मतुप्) adjunct used in this divine name indicates extremity of such qualities.


Etymology: Since Bhagavan displays His inseparable supreme lordship even during His human incarnation right from childhood, He is called ‘vEgavAn’.





374) amitASanaH (अमिताशनः)

How or where has He displayed such feats? This is illustrated here with this divine name ‘amitASanaH’ – the one with unlimited appetite.

Bhagavan swallowed all the unlimited quantities of food prepared by the cowherds for Indra (in the name of Govardhana parvata). The scriptures say that the cowherds (Gopas) were extremely astonished at this extraordinary feat and doubted if He was any God, or a demon. Such are His divine plays.


Etymology: He who ate the unlimited quantities of food prepared by the cowherds with the intent of offering it to Indra without leaving any traces is called ‘amitASanaH’.










375) udbhavaH (उद्भवः) (also repeated in 796)

With His numerous divine deeds such as getting tied with a rope by Yashoda et al, since Bhagavan uplifts the fallen souls from the shackles of death (saMsAra), He is called ‘udbhavaH’ – the one who uplifts fallen souls from saMsAra.

This is as hailed by the scriptures thus: “…that Damodara, who was tied with a rope, but who unties the fallen souls from the shackles of death”


Etymology: He is called ‘udbhavaH’, with whose grace the fallen individuals are uplifted from this saMsAra.




376) kShObhaNaH (क्षॊभणः)

Bhagavan is called ‘kShObhaNaH’ since He mixes up the individual souls and the prakRuti (nature), which are otherwise different from each other. He binds the individual souls in different bodies (made of nature) at the time of creation, and thus combines the two different entities.


Etymology: Since Bhagavan binds the fallen individual souls (eligible to be bound due to their karma) in the lower nature, He is called ‘kShObhaNaH’.




377) dEvaH (दॆवः)

Bhagavan ties the individual souls with His rope called ‘mAyA’ just like trapping tigers and wild boars, and plays with them in this creation. Hence, He is called ‘dEvaH’ – the one who plays. It comes from the root ‘div’ (दिव्), to mean ‘sport’ in this context.


Etymology: Just like trapping and caging a tiger and other wild beasts, since Bhagavan binds the individual souls (bound by karma) in this creation with His rope called ‘mAyA’ and plays with them, He is called ‘dEvaH’.





378) SrIgarbhaH (श्रीगर्भः)

Bhagavan – along with Sri Mahalakshmi – play thus with all these creations, and since His divine wealth constantly grows with such divine sport, He is called ‘SrIgarbhaH’.

As the scriptures say, Sri Mahalakshmi is the one who never gets separated from Bhagavan.


Etymology: He is called ‘SrIgarbhaH’, who constantly engages in divine sport with Sri Mahalakshmi and enjoys.




379) paramESvaraH (परमॆश्वरः)

Thus, the one who possesses absolute supremacy purely due to His association with Sri Mahalakshmi, who married Him out of Her own wish, is called ‘paramESvaraH’.

The Srimad Ramayana says thus: “Rama glittered with Seetha by His side, just as the lord of all beings – Vishnu – shines forth with Sri Mahalakshmi by His side”.


Etymology: Owing to Sri Mahalakshmi who voluntarily married Bhagavan, since He possesses absolute supremacy and lordship over every entity, He is called ‘paramESvaraH’.



380) karaNam (करणम्)

Since Bhagavan is Himself the tool helpful in attaining Him, He is called ‘karaNam’ – the tool. It is indeed from just a very small fraction of such Bhagavan’s power that all of our sense organs such as eyes, ears, et al, action organs such as hands, legs, et al get their power to act as tools for knowledge and action.

The scriptures say thus:

Narayana is verily the eyes, and the object of vision. Narayana is indeed the ears, and the object of hearing”, et al.


Etymology: The one who is Himself the tool for all individual souls in the pursuit of attaining Him is called ‘karaNam’.




381) kAraNam (कारणम्)

Furthermore, Bhagavan is only the cause for all organs to act as per their natures – such as the eyes seeing, the ears hearing, et al. He only enables them to act accordingly. Hence, He is called ‘kAraNam’.


Etymology: The one who enables the sense and action organs of all individual souls born in this creation to act is called ‘kAraNam’.





382) kartA (कर्ता) (also repeated in 317)

The one who is originally not bound by any of such actions is called ‘kartA’.

Although the individual souls are purely causal for their own actions, fruits and enjoyments, Bhagavan considers all of them as His own out of His love towards the souls.

The Srimad Ramayana hails this great quality of Bhagavan thus: “In sorrows of all humans, Rama would be sad for them even before the victims themselves. In happiness of all humans, He would be happier than them just like a loving father”

Bhagavan never enjoys solitude, and hence He decided to multiply”, et al.


Etymology: The one who is actually aloof from the results of such actions (but volunteers to own them) is called ‘kartA’.




383) vikartA (विकर्ता)

Since Bhagavan voluntarily takes on the ownership of enjoyments of fruits thus, and hence experiences joy and sorrows – thereby showing transformations, He is called ‘vikartA’.

It is absolutely clear that Bhagavan originally isn’t affected by any of these results of various actions, since all such actions and results are driven by the karma of individual souls. However, it is out of sheer compassion and His boundless love towards such fallen souls that He owns such enjoyments of fruits. This is purely His greatness, and not a shortcoming that affects His absolute Supremacy. After all, if He were not to be so compassionate towards us, how would such divine auspicious qualities befit Him? Is it even wrong to empathize with other grieving souls?


Etymology: The one who is subject to transformations of mind due to the experience of joy and sorrows (of His devotees), He is called ‘vikartA’.




384) gahanaH (गहनः) (also repeated in 548)

Thus, Bhagavan identifies Himself with every individual soul – mixing well with each of their knowledge levels, enjoyments, nature of actions, et al, as if He was never separate from them anytime. Since the depth of such great qualities of Bhagavan cannot be fathomed, He is called ‘gahanaH’ – the unfathomable.

The scriptures hail thus: “Although He resides amidst the devas, they do not know His true nature”

The Antaryami Brahmanam hails this feat of Bhagavan thus: “He who resides within this Earth, but the Earth doesn’t know….. He who indwells every soul, but the souls do not know….” et al.

The Subala Upanishat says thus: “Narayana is verily the eyes, as well as the object of vision”.

Bhagavan declares thus in Bhagavad-geetha: “Arjuna, there are five entities playing their roles in every deed – the physical body, the individual soul, the mind, the life breath, and the Supreme soul”, et al.


Etymology: The one who is unfathomable due to His great quality of completely identifying Himself with the fallen souls is called ‘gahanaH’.






385) guhaH (गुहः)

Since Bhagavan protects each and every devotee thus, He is called ‘guhaH’.


Etymology: Bhagavan is called ‘guhaH’ since He protects His devotees.


रक्षतीति गुहः स्मृतः |







386) vyavasAyaH (व्यवसायः)

Thereafter, the manifestation of Bhagavan Vasudeva in the dhruva mandalam is hailed. Bhagavan binds the planetary groups and constellations in an amazing formation in the dhruva mandala. Hence, He is called ‘vyavasAyaH’.

The abode of all such planets and constellations – the dhruva mandala – is verily Bhagavan’s divine form of the supreme sky. Thus He holds all such entities as His body.

That is only the reason why the mantra varnas hail Bhagavan as ‘the one whose form is verily the sky’.

The meditative sloka on Bhagavan hails Him as “the Lord who bears the constellation cycles”.


Etymology: Since Bhagavan firmly binds the constellations and planets in the dhruva mandala (His own body), He is called ‘vyavasAyaH’. He is the very support for all such entities.





387) vyavasthAnaH (व्यवस्थानः)

The basis for determining the different positions of such constellations and planets is time. This time is divided by Bhagavan into different units such as kalA, kAShTA, muhUrta, et al. All these units of time reside in Bhagavan only. He is verily the indweller of such time.

Thus, He is called ‘vyavasthAnaH’.


Etymology: Since the various units of time such as kalA, muhUrta, et al are firmly established in Him, He is called ‘vyavasthAnaH’.





388) saMsthAnaH (संस्थानः)

At the end of creation, since all these entities – constellations, planets, time, et al get merged in Him, He is called ‘saMsthAnaH’.


Etymology: Since all the entities merge into the dhruva mandala (Bhagavan’s divine body) at the end of creation, He is called ‘saMsthAnaH’.




389) sthAnadaH (स्थानदः)

Since Bhagavan only grants the highest abode of Sri Vaikuntham to Dhruva Maharaja, He is called ‘sthAnadaH’.


Etymology: Since Bhagavan alone is the grantor of the Supreme Abode Sri Vaikuntham, He is called ‘sthAnadaH’.





390) dhruvaH (ध्रुवः) (also repeated in 55)

Bhagavan bestowed upon the little boy Dhruva a magnificent position in the Dhruva mandala. It is due to this great deed that Bhagavan Himself is called ‘dhruvaH’ – the one who permanently establishes His devotees in great positions. This clearly indicates that He alone pervades all entities and all places at all times.


Etymology: Bhagavan is called ‘dhruvaH’ since He bestowed upon an ordinary soul – Dhruva Maharaja – verily the highest position in the Dhruva Mandala and established him firmly for a long time.





391) pararddhiH (परर्द्धिः)

Thence the divine deed of Bhagavan in His greatest incarnation as Sri Rama, which is capable of reviving a dying soul, is hailed. Although possessing all wealth, since His divine auspicious qualities are highly opulent, He is called ‘pararddhiH’.

Although Bhagavan is the only Supreme Entity ruling over all others, He is compared to some lowly demigods for a miniscule of His original qualities in His incarnation as Sri Rama.

For instance, Srimad Ramayanam hails Rama’s qualities thus:

He greatly resembles Vishnu in valor. In His affable appearance, He resembles the moon”, et al.

The same Srimad Ramayanam later hails His absolute supremacy thus:

Sri Rama’s qualities cannot be described with mere words. His greatness never diminishes. He is perceptible only by the highest Vedas, and resides in the hearts of all devas and all other entities. He is indeed the one who destroys all our enemies”, et al.

The mantra varnas hailing Sri Rama address Him as ‘Bhagavan’ – indicating opulence of all divine and auspicious qualities in Him.


Etymology: Since Sri Rama is ever filled with an abundance of superior and auspicious qualities, and shows His absolute supremacy at all times.





392) paramaspaShTaH (परमस्पष्टः)

To elaborate further, the same point is reinforced with this divine name ‘paramaspaShTaH’. His absolute supremacy can be clearly seen in various occasions.

This is shown in Srimad Ramayana by Mandodari when her husband Ravana was killed by Sri Rama. While grieving her husband’s death, she praises Rama thus: “This Rama is clearly showing Himself as verily the Supreme and eternal Godhead Narayana”.

The same Srimad Ramayana also hails Rama thus: “He is verily the sun to even the sun god”, et al.


Etymology: The one whose absolute supremacy is very clearly seen even in His incarnation as Sri Rama is called ‘paramaspaShTaH’.




393) tuShTaH (तुष्टः)

Bhagavan rejoices His attainment of the status of being Dasharatha’s son much more than His absolute supremacy itself. Thus, He is called ‘tuShTaH’.

The Srimad Ramayana says thus about Bhagavan:

At that moment, Bhagavan Vishnu delighted in choosing Dasharatha as His would-be father”

Sri Rama greatly delights in practicing His own varNa-aashrama principles of the Kshatriya community”

I consider myself as a human; the son of Dasharatha, Rama by name”, et al.


Etymology: The one who is highly contented with His attainment of the status of being Dasharatha’s son, ruling over the kingdom of Ayodhya, and acting like an ordinary human being (more than His absolute supremacy itself) is called ‘tuShTaH’.





394) puShTaH (पुष्टः)

Since Sri Rama is resplendent with an abundance of such great qualities, He is called ‘puShTaH’. The Srimad Ramayana says “…that Sri Rama, who is full of auspicious qualities”.


Etymology: The one who is replete with great qualities such as benevolence and the like is called ‘puShTaH’.




395) shubhEkShaNaH (शुभॆक्षणः)

Sri Rama possesses wide, pacific, benign, long and red hued auspicious lotus-like eyes, betraying His supreme nature said hitherto. Hence, He is called ‘shubhEkShaNaH’.

This is as said in Srimad Ramayanam thus:

Sri Rama has nice eyebrows and long lotus-like reddish eyes, akin to Vishnu Himself”.

Alternately, Sri Rama is hailed as ‘shubhEkShaNaH’ since His eyes are looked by each and every soul, and He looks at each and every soul. Again, Srimad Ramayana supports this view thus: “He – who does not see Rama and whom Rama doesn’t see – shall be the most ill fated soul in this world, to the extent that he is disliked by himself the most”.


Etymology: The one who possesses pacific, long and wide lotus-like reddish eyes that show His excellence in disposition is called ‘shubhEkShaNaH’.









396) rAmaH (रामः)

The one who attracts every soul with His divine forms and auspicious qualities is called ‘rAmaH’. Srimad Ramayana says thus:

Rama is the greatest of entities that generate happiness among souls”

“…that Rama, who is a storehouse of auspicious qualities…”

Sri Rama is dark complexioned, youthful, red-eyed, and like a bull among elephants.”

Sri Rama shone with His great qualities just like the sun shines with its bright rays, attracting every citizen of Ayodhya with His love, and verily embodying Dasharatha’s love.”

The mantra varnas hailing Sri Rama say thus: “…that Sri Rama, who is attractive with His dark complexioned body like a beautiful water-lily blooming in the autumn season”.


Etymology: Since Bhagavan delights the individual souls with His auspicious sight, divine form and great qualities, He is called ‘rAmaH’.




397) virAmaH (विरामः)

The grantor of boon – the four faced Brahma, the boon itself – the boon of immortality, and the seeker of such boon – the ten headed Ravana – all finally rest in Sri Rama’s actions. Hence, He is called ‘virAmaH’ – the resting abode.

Hanuman praises Rama’s valor thus in front of Ravana: “Even if the four faced Brahma, three eyed Shiva, the thousand eyed Indra, and others come together in opposition, Sri Rama still remains invincible by all of them”


Etymology: The one who is causes the various entities to rest, such as the grantor of boon – Brahma, the seekers of boon – Ravana and others, and the boon itself – the boon of immortality and invincibility – is called ‘virAmaH’.





398) virataH (विरतः) (also repeated in 367), mArgaH (मार्गः)

Since Sri Rama is unattached to material pleasures such as rule of kingdom and the like, He is called ‘virataH’.

Sri Valmiki Maharshi beautifully describes this glorious attribute of Sri Rama thus:

Just as the darkness of night cannot diminish the radiance of the cooling moon, so also the loss of kingdom rule does not take away the naturally great wealth of His pacific nature”

Rama considers obedience to His father Dasharatha superior to His coronation itself”

There was not a least bit of fear in the face of Rama when He gave up the rule of kingdom for the sake of dharma and took me to the forest by walk”, et al

Further, He is called ‘mArgaH’. Here, it means that He is sought after by all the sages such as Bharadwaja Maharshi and others.

Thus, these two names can be seen separately.

Alternately, the two words can be seen together to refer to a single divine name ‘virajOmargaH’ as well. This means He is the one who shows the individual souls the faultless path of mOkSha.

This is shown in Srimad Ramayana thus:

Oh Jatayu, tread that greatest path and reach the supreme abode of Sri Vaikuntham, which is otherwise treaded by pious men practicing the highest dharmas”.

Rama’s bow enabled Vali to reach the highest destination”, et al.


Etymology: By nature, since Rama is unattached to the material pursuits such as kingdom rule and the like, He is called ‘virataH’. Also, since He is constantly sought after by sage Bharadwaja and others, He is called ‘mArgaH’. In another version, the two words are combined into a single divine name ‘virajOmargaH’, meaning He is the one who shows us the faultless path of mOkSha.








399) nEyaH (नॆयः)

Sri Rama subjects Himself to the orders of pious men and obeys them. Hence, He is called ‘nEyaH’.

In the Srimad Ramayana, it is shown thus:

Oh sages, I am at your behest”

Having accepted all your orders, I now wish to stay here in this forest…”

The one who wishes to gain long lasting wealth must approach learned men, no matter how intelligent he is”

In the Sabha Parva of Sri Mahabharata, Bhagavan declares thus:

Oh Yudhishtira, perform the yajna that you so desire. When I am here to do good to you, you can appoint me for any work; I shall do everything that you order me to do”

In the Udyoga Parva, He says: “Oh mighty one! I am at your behest. Tell me what I can do for you, and I shall do all that you order”

In the Srimad Ramayana, it is also said about Lakshmana thus:

With the friendly attitude and extreme devotion of Hanuman, Lakshmana allowed Himself to be easily lifted by that monkey, who is not even shaken by others otherwise.”


Etymology: The one who subordinates to His dearest pious devotees is called ‘nEyaH’.




400) nayaH (नयः)

Although Bhagavan subordinates Himself at the behest of the pious sages, yet the sages remain to be protected by Bhagavan only. This is shown in this divine name ‘nayaH’.

In Srimad Ramayana, the sages pray thus:

Oh Rama, although we perform fierce penance, yet we are under your protection just like an infant under the protection of its mother in her womb”

Similarly the Pandavas declare thus, although Krishna says He is at their behest: “Oh Krishna, you are our lord, and we are in your refuge”.


Etymology: Since all sages are lead and protected by Rama, He is called ‘nayaH’.




Thus ends the fourth centum (chaturtha shatakam) in Sri Bhagavad-guNa-darpaNa, which is an explanation of Sri Vishnu Sahasranama, by the scion of Sri Harita clan, the son of Srivatsanka Mishra (Koorattazhwan) – Sriranganatha by name, also called Sri Parasara Bhatta, who wrote this glorious commentary at the behest of Sri Rangaraja.


The fourth centum is completed.


One comment

  1. adiyen ramanuja dasan…when can we see the next centum (5th hundred) getting started swami ? 🙂

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